Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) Glossary of Terms, 2016-17


Introduction
This glossary provides definitions of terms and descriptions of calculations used in the Texas Education Agency reports Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Examination Results in Texas Public Schools, 2016-17, and Advanced Placement Examination Results in Texas and the United States, 2016-17.

Texas Public School Accountability System

The Texas public school accountability system evaluates the performance of districts and campuses in three domains: Student Achievement, School Progress, and Closing the Gaps (Texas Education Code, Chapter 39 [retrieved September 25, 2018]). For the 2018 accountability ratings cycle, districts received overall accountability ratings of A-F and campuses received overall accountability ratings of Met Standard, Met Alternative Standard, or Improvement Required based on results across a number of indicators in the three domains. Performance on AP and IB was a component of the college, career, and military readiness indicators, which were included in all three domains.

College, Career, and Military Readiness (CCMR) Indicators
The CCMR indicators in the Texas public school accountability system use performance data from the ACT, AP, IB, SAT, and Texas Success Initiative assessments, among other data, to measure students' preparedness for college, the workforce, or the military. There are two CCMR indicators in the accountability system: one for the Student Achievement and School Progress domains and one for the Closing the Gaps domain. Performance on AP and IB is included in both CCMR indicators. For the 2018 accountability ratings cycle, the CCMR indicator for the Student Achievement and School Progress domains measured the percentage of 2017 annual graduates who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one AP or IB examination in any subject and the CCMR indicator for the Closing the Gaps domain measured the percentage of 2017 annual graduates plus students in Grade 12 in the 2016-17 school year who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one AP or IB examination in any subject. The AP/IB components of the CCMR indicators were evaluated based on data for the 2013-14 through 2016-17 school years.

Distinction Designations

Overview
Under the Texas public school accountability system, distinction designations are awarded to recognize school districts and campuses for outstanding achievement in specified academic areas (Texas Education Code, Chapter 39, Subchapter G [retrieved September 25, 2018]). The distinction designations are based on results across a number of indicators. To be eligible to earn a distinction designation, a district must receive an accountability rating of A, B, C, or D and a campus must receive an accountability rating of Met Standard.

Academic Achievement Distinction Designations (AADDs)
For the 2018 accountability ratings cycle, AADDs were available at the campus level in four subject areas: English language arts (ELA), mathematics, science, and social studies. Each AADD included two AP/IB indicators: participation in, and performance on, AP/IB examinations in the specified subject area. Results for a campus were evaluated in relation to results for a comparison group of similar campuses. The AP/IB indicators for AADDs were evaluated based on data for the 2016-17 school year. AADDs were not available for districts.

Following are examples of AP/IB indicator calculations for AADDs, using ELA as the subject area.


  • Participation in AP/IB examinations in ELA, which measures the campus-wide percentage of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA, was calculated as follows:

    number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA
    number of students in Grades 11 and 12

  • Performance on AP/IB examinations in ELA, which measures the campus-wide percentage of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in ELA, was calculated as follows:

    number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in ELA
    number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA

Closing the Gaps Distinction Designations (CGDDs)
For the 2018 accountability ratings cycle, one CGDD was available at the campus level. The CGDD included one AP/IB indicator as a component of the CCMR indicator for the Closing the Gaps domain: performance on AP/IB examinations in any subject area. Results for a campus were evaluated in relation to results for a comparison group of similar campuses. The indicator for CGDDs measured the percentage of 2017 annual graduates plus students in Grade 12 in the 2016-17 school year who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one AP or IB examination in any subject, among other CCMR criteria. The indicator was evaluated based on AP/IB data for the 2013-14 through 2016-17 school years. CGDDs were not available for districts.

Postsecondary Readiness Distinction Designations (PRDDs)
For the 2018 accountability ratings cycle, one PRDD was available at the campus level, and one was available at the district level. In each case, the PRDD included two AP/IB indicators: participation in AP/IB examinations in any subject area and college, career, and military ready graduates. The college, career, and military ready graduates indicator measured the percentage of 2017 annual graduates who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one AP or IB examination in any subject, among other CCMR criteria. Results for a campus were evaluated in relation to results for a comparison group of similar campuses. Results for a district were evaluated based on results for campus-level indicators aggregated across all campuses in the district. The AP/IB participation indicator for PRDDs was evaluated based on data for the 2016-17 school year, and the college, career, and military ready graduates indicator was evaluated based on AP/IB data for the 2013-14 through 2016-17 school years.

At the campus level, participation in AP/IB examinations in any subject, which measures the campus-wide percentage of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in any subject, was calculated as follows:


number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in any subject
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in any subject

Additional Resources
For more information about the AP/IB indicators, see Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate General Information, 2016-17. For more information about accountability system ratings and distinction designations, see the 2018 Accountability Manual. See also Criterion Score.


At-Risk
A student identified as at-risk of dropping out of school is one who is under age 26 and who meets one or more of the following criteria:

  1. is in prekindergarten, kindergarten or Grades 1, 2, or 3 and did not perform satisfactorily on a readiness test or assessment instrument administered during the current school year;
  2. is in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 and did not maintain an average equivalent to 70 on a scale of 100 in two or more subjects in the foundation curriculum (language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies) during a semester in the preceding or current school year or is not maintaining such an average in two or more subjects in the foundation curriculum in the current semester;
  3. was not advanced from one grade level to the next for one or more school years;
  4. did not perform satisfactorily on an assessment instrument administered to the student under Texas Education Code (TEC) Subchapter B, Chapter 39 (retrieved September 25, 2018), and who has not in the previous or current school year subsequently performed on that instrument or another appropriate instrument at a level equal to at least 110 percent of the level of satisfactory performance on that instrument;
  5. is pregnant or is a parent;
  6. has been placed in an alternative education program in accordance with TEC 37.006 (retrieved September 25, 2018) during the preceding or current school year;
  7. has been expelled in accordance with TEC 37.007 (retrieved September 25, 2018) during the preceding or current school year;
  8. is currently on parole, probation, deferred prosecution, or other conditional release;
  9. was previously reported through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) to have dropped out of school;
  10. is a student of limited English proficiency, as defined by TEC 29.052 (retrieved September 25, 2018);
  11. is in the custody or care of the Department of Protective and Regulatory Services or has, during the current school year, been referred to the department by a school official, officer of the juvenile court, or law enforcement official;
  12. is homeless, as defined by 42 U.S.C. Section 11302, and its subsequent amendments; or
  13. resided in the preceding school year or resides in the current school year in a residential placement facility in the district, including a detention facility, substance abuse treatment facility, emergency shelter, psychiatric hospital, halfway house, or foster group home.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL)
Bilingual indicates that the student is participating in a state-approved bilingual education program. The program must be a full-time program that provides dual-language instruction through the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) in the content areas (mathematics, science, health, and social studies) in the primary language of English language learners (ELLs). In addition, the program must provide for a carefully structured and sequenced mastery of English cognitive academic language development. ESL indicates that a student is participating in a state-approved ESL program. An ESL program in Grade 8 and below is a program of intensive instruction in English from teachers either certified or endorsed in ESL who use second language acquisition information to teach ELL students the ESL TEKS. An ESL program in Grades 9-12 is a program of intensive instruction in English from teachers trained in recognizing and dealing with language differences.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Career and Technical Education (CTE)
A student enrolled in a state-approved CTE program as a participant in the district's career and technical coherent sequence of courses is identified as participating in a career and technical education program.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Criterion Score
For purposes of assigning accountability ratings and awarding distinction designations under the Texas public school accountability system, AP/IB examination performance indicators measure the percentages of annual graduates, annual graduates plus students in Grade 12, and examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one examination. The criterion scores are defined as 3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination. All Texas colleges and universities must adopt and implement a policy to grant undergraduate course credit for incoming freshman who have completed the IB Diploma Programme or achieved required scores on one or more AP examinations. See also Texas Public School Accountability System.

[Source: Texas Education Code 51.968 (retrieved September 25, 2018)]


Data Masking
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (Title 20 of the United States Code 1232g [retrieved September 25, 2018]; Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 99 [retrieved September 25, 2018]) prohibits improper disclosure of personally identifiable student information by any educational agency or institution that receives funding under any program administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED). In 2016, ED guidance on reporting education data in compliance with FERPA changed, relaxing requirements for masking state-level data. Based on this guidance, state-level data presented will no longer be masked, beginning with 2015-16 reporting.


Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. A student is identified as having dyslexia after being screened or tested at the end of his or her kindergarten year and in Grade 1 in accordance with a program approved by the State Board of Education.

[Source: Texas Education Code 38.003 (retrieved September 25, 2018)]


Economically Disadvantaged
A student identified as economically disadvantaged is one who is eligible for free or reduced-price meals under the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Program.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


End-of-Course (EOC) Substitute Assessments for Graduation
Beginning in the 2011-12 school year, approved AP and IB examinations may be used to substitute one specific EOC assessment graduation requirement. A student who passes the AP Biology examination or the IB Biology examination may substitute either assessment for the Biology EOC assessment graduation requirement. A student who passes the AP English Language and Composition examination or the IB Language A: Language and Literature examination may substitute either assessment for the English I or English II EOC assessment graduation requirement. A student who passes the AP United States History examination or the IB History of the Americas examination may substitute either assessment for the United States History EOC assessment graduation requirement. Passing scores are defined as 3 or higher for an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination.

[Source: Texas Education Code 39.025; 19 Texas Administrative Code 101.4002 (amended to be effective July 26, 2017)]


English Language Learner (ELL)
A student is classified as an ELL when: (a) a language other than English is used as the primary language in the home, and (b) the student's English language proficiency is determined to be limited by a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee or as indicated by a test of English proficiency. Most students identified as ELLs receive bilingual or English as a second language instruction.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards19 Texas Administrative Code 89.1225 (amended to be effective May 28, 2012)]


Gifted and Talented
A student identified as gifted and talented is one who performs at or shows the potential for performing at a remarkably high level of accomplishment when compared to others of the same age, experience, or environment, and who: (a) exhibits high performance capability in an intellectual, creative, or artistic area; (b) possesses an unusual capacity for leadership; or (c) excels in a specific academic field.

[Source: Texas Education Code 29.121 (retrieved September 25, 2018)]


Homeless
A student is classified as homeless when the student lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Title X, Part C, Section 725(2) (retrieved September 25, 2018). This definition includes:

  • children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement;
  • children and youths who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings;
  • children and youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and
  • migratory children (as such term is defined in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 1309) who qualify as homeless because the children are living in circumstances described previously.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Immigrant
A student identified as an immigrant is one who: (a) is aged 3 through 21; (b) was not born in any state in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia; and (c) has not been attending school in the United States for more than three full academic years. U.S. citizenship is not a factor when identifying a student as an immigrant for the purpose of public school data collection.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Mean Score
A mean score is the average score for a given group on a given examination. As an example, the mean AP Psychology score for Texas is calculated as follows:


sum of scores received on all AP Psychology examinations taken by Texas students
number of AP Psychology examinations taken by Texas students

Mean AP scores for students in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.


Migrant
A student identified as a migrant is one who: (a) is aged 3 through 21; (b) is (or whose parent, spouse, or guardian is) a migratory agricultural worker; and (c) in the preceding 36 months, to obtain temporary employment in agriculture or fishing, or to accompany a parent, spouse, or guardian to obtain such employment: (1) has moved from one school district to another; or (2) resides in a school district of more than 15,000 square miles, and migrates a distance of 20 miles or more to a temporary residence to engage in a fishing activity.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Participation Rate
Participation rates for Texas public school students are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. When combined results are presented, data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. For example, the AP/IB participation rate for students in Grades 11 and 12 is calculated as follows:


number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

AP participation rates for students in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board. For information about calculations for distinction designations, see Distinction Designations.


Performance: Examinations With Scores At or Above Criterion (3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination)
Performance results for all examinations taken by Texas public school students are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. Counts of examinations are based on the number of examinations taken in the current school year that received valid scores. Examination counts are higher than examinee counts because some examinees take more than one subject examination. As an example, the percentage of AP/IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12 that received scores at or above criterion is calculated as follows:


number of AP or IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12 that received scores at or above criterion
number of AP or IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12

See also Criterion Score. AP performance results for examinees in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.


Performance: Examinees Scoring At or Above Criterion (3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination)
Performance results for Texas public school examinees are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. Students who have valid AP scores in the range of 1 to 5 or valid IB scores in the range of 1 to 7 for at least one examination taken in the current school year are counted as examinees that year. When combined results are presented, data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. As an example, the percentage of AP/IB examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion is calculated as follows:


number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination

See also Criterion Score. For information about calculations for CCMR indicators, see College, Career, and Military Readiness (CCMR) Indicators. For information about calculations for distinction designations, see Distinction Designations. AP performance results for examinees in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.


Performance: Students Qualifying for College Credit Based on AP or IB Examination Performance
Students in Grades 11 and 12 who have valid AP scores in the range of 3 to 5 or valid IB scores in the range of 4 to 7 for at least one examination taken in the current school year are counted as qualifying for college credit. Data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. The percentage of students qualifying for college credit is calculated as follows:


number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who scored 3 or higher on at least one AP examination or 4 or higher on at least one IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

Race/Ethnicity

College Board
The College Board collects self-reported demographic information, such as race/ethnicity, when examinees take each examination.

For 2014-15 and earlier school years, College Board reported the following five racial/ethnic categories: African American, American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic (Mexican American, Puerto Rican, or other Hispanic), and White.

Beginning in 2015-16, College Board collected data on race and ethnicity in compliance with the federal standard. The standard requires that race and ethnicity be collected separately using a specific two-part question, presented in a specific order, and that both parts of the question be answered.

Part 1. Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin?
  • No, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin
  • Yes, Cuban
  • Yes, Mexican
  • Yes, Puerto Rican
  • Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin

Part 2. What is your race?
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  • White

College Board combines the answers to the two-part question to create the following seven mutually exclusive racial/ethnic categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, White, and multiracial. A student identified as Hispanic is included only in the count for Hispanics. A student not identified as Hispanic is included in the count for only one of the following six racial categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Pacific Islander, White, or multiracial. A student identified as having two or more races is included only in the count for multiracial students, not in the count for any single racial category.

International Baccalaureate
IB collects self-reported demographic information, such as race/ethnicity, when examinees take each examination.

Prior to the 2015-16 school year, IB reported the following five racial/ethnic categories: African American, American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and White.

In 2015-16, IB began reporting the following seven racial/ethnic categories:

  1. African American
  2. American Indian
  3. Asian
  4. Hispanic
  5. Pacific Islander
  6. White
  7. Multiracial

In 2016-17, IB did not provide examinees' race/ethnicity data to TEA.

Texas Education Agency
School districts submit student demographic information to TEA through the Public Education Information Management System. In 2009-10, TEA began collecting data on race and ethnicity in compliance with a new federal standard. The standard requires that race and ethnicity be collected separately using a specific two-part question, presented in a specific order, and that both parts of the question be answered.

Part 1. Ethnicity: Is the person Hispanic/Latino? Choose only one.
  • Hispanic/Latino
  • Not Hispanic/Latino

Part 2. Race: What is the person's race? Choose one or more, regardless of ethnicity.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
  • White

The racial/ethnic categories are defined as follows. Hispanic includes students of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. American Indian or Alaska Native includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain a tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. Black or African American includes students having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. White includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

For purposes of reporting Texas public school AP and IB data, TEA combines the answers to the two-part question to create seven mutually exclusive racial/ethnic categories. A student identified as Hispanic is included only in the count for Hispanics. A student not identified as Hispanic is included in the count for only one of the following six racial categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Pacific Islander, White, or multiracial. A student identified as having two or more races is included only in the count for multiracial students, not in the count for any single racial category.

[Source: 2009-2010 PEIMS Data Standards; 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Special Education
A student enrolled in a special education program is one who is participating in a special education instructional and related services program or a general education program using special education support services, supplementary aids, or other special arrangements.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]


Title I
A Title I student is one participating in a program authorized under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which is designed to improve the academic achievement of disadvantaged students.

[Source: 2016-17 Texas Education Data Standards]



Copyright Information
AP is a trademark of the College Board, and International Baccalaureate is a trademark of International Baccalaureate. Other product and company names mentioned may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Contact Information
For questions or comments, please e-mail the Division of Research and Analysis, or contact the division by phone at 512-475-3523.

This page last updated April 30, 2019.