Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) Glossary of Terms, 2015-16


Introduction
This glossary provides definitions of terms and descriptions of calculations used in the Texas Education Agency reports Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Examination Results in Texas Public Schools, 2015-16, and Advanced Placement Examination Results in Texas and the United States, 2015-16.

Distinction Designations

Overview
Under the Texas public school accountability system, distinction designations are awarded to recognize school districts and campuses for outstanding achievement in specified academic areas (Texas Education Code, Chapter 39, Subchapter G [retrieved October 30, 2017]). The distinction designations are based on results across a number of indicators. To be eligible to earn a distinction designation, a district or campus must receive an accountability rating of Met Standard.

Academic Achievement Distinction Designations (AADDs)
For the 2017 accountability ratings cycle, AADDs were available at the campus level in four subject areas: English language arts (ELA), mathematics, science, and social studies. Each AADD included two AP/IB indicators: participation in, and performance on, AP/IB examinations in the specified subject area. Results for a campus were evaluated in relation to results for a comparison group of similar campuses. The AP/IB indicators for AADDs were evaluated based on data for the 2015-16 school year. AADDs were not available for districts.

Following are examples of AP/IB indicator calculations for AADDs, using ELA as the subject area.


  • Participation in AP/IB examinations in ELA, which measures the campus-wide percentage of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA, was calculated as follows:

    number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA
    number of students in Grades 11 and 12

  • Performance on AP/IB examinations in ELA, which measures the campus-wide percentage of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in ELA, was calculated as follows:

    number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in ELA
    number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA

Postsecondary Readiness Distinction Designations (PRDDs)
For the 2017 accountability ratings cycle, one PRDD was available at the campus level, and one was available at the district level. In each case, the PRDD included one AP/IB indicator: performance on AP/IB examinations in any subject area. Results for a campus were evaluated in relation to results for a comparison group of similar campuses. Results for a district were evaluated based on results for campus-level indicators aggregated across all campuses in the district. The AP/IB indicator for PRDDs was evaluated based on data for the 2015-16 school year.

At the campus level, performance on AP/IB examinations in any subject, which measures the campus-wide percentage of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in any subject, was calculated as follows:


number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in any subject
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in any subject

Additional Resources
For more information about the AP/IB indicators, see Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate General Information, 2015-16. For more information about distinction designations, see the 2017 Accountability Manual. See also Criterion Score.


At-Risk
A student identified as at-risk of dropping out of school is one who is under age 26 and who meets one or more of the following criteria:

  1. is in prekindergarten, kindergarten or Grades 1, 2, or 3 and did not perform satisfactorily on a readiness test or assessment instrument administered during the current school year;
  2. is in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 and did not maintain an average equivalent to 70 on a scale of 100 in two or more subjects in the foundation curriculum (language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies) during a semester in the preceding or current school year or is not maintaining such an average in two or more subjects in the foundation curriculum in the current semester;
  3. was not advanced from one grade level to the next for one or more school years;
  4. did not perform satisfactorily on an assessment instrument administered to the student under Texas Education Code (TEC) Subchapter B, Chapter 39 (retrieved October 30, 2017), and who has not in the previous or current school year subsequently performed on that instrument or another appropriate instrument at a level equal to at least 110 percent of the level of satisfactory performance on that instrument;
  5. is pregnant or is a parent;
  6. has been placed in an alternative education program in accordance with TEC 37.006 (retrieved October 30, 2017) during the preceding or current school year;
  7. has been expelled in accordance with TEC 37.007 (retrieved October 30, 2017) during the preceding or current school year;
  8. is currently on parole, probation, deferred prosecution, or other conditional release;
  9. was previously reported through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) to have dropped out of school;
  10. is a student of limited English proficiency, as defined by TEC 29.052 (retrieved October 30, 2017);
  11. is in the custody or care of the Department of Protective and Regulatory Services or has, during the current school year, been referred to the department by a school official, officer of the juvenile court, or law enforcement official;
  12. is homeless, as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Title X, Part C, Section 725(2) (retrieved October 30, 2017), the term "homeless children and youths," and its subsequent amendments; or
  13. resided in the preceding school year or resides in the current school year in a residential placement facility in the district, including a detention facility, substance abuse treatment facility, emergency shelter, psychiatric hospital, halfway house, or foster group home.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL)
Bilingual indicates that the student is participating in a state-approved bilingual education program. The program must be a full-time program that provides dual-language instruction through the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills in the content areas (mathematics, science, health, and social studies) in the primary language of English language learners (ELLs). In addition, the program must provide for a carefully structured and sequenced mastery of English cognitive academic language development. ESL indicates that a student is participating in a state-approved ESL program. An ESL program in Grade 8 and below is a program of intensive instruction in English from teachers either certified or endorsed in ESL who use second language acquisition information to teach ELLs the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS). An ESL program in Grades 9-12 is a program of intensive instruction in English from teachers trained in recognizing and dealing with language differences who use secondary language acquisition information to teach ELLs the ELPS.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Career and Technical Education (CTE)
A student may be enrolled in a state-approved CTE program either as a participant in the district's career and technical coherent sequence of courses or as a participant in the district's tech prep program.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Criterion Score
For purposes of awarding distinction designations under the Texas public school accountability system, AP/IB examination performance indicators measure the percentages of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one examination. The criterion scores are defined as 3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination. All Texas colleges and universities must adopt and implement a policy to grant undergraduate course credit for incoming freshman who have completed the IB Diploma Programme or achieved required scores on one or more AP examinations. See also Distinction Designations.

[Source: Texas Education Code 51.968 (retrieved October 30, 2017)]


Data Masking
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (Title 20 of the United States Code 1232g [retrieved October 30, 2017]; Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 99 [retrieved October 30, 2017]) prohibits improper disclosure of personally identifiable student information by any educational agency or institution that receives funding under any program administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED). In 2016, ED guidance on reporting education data in compliance with FERPA changed, relaxing requirements for masking state-level data. Based on this guidance, state-level data presented will no longer be masked, beginning with 2015-16 reporting.


Economically Disadvantaged
A student identified as economically disadvantaged is one who is eligible for free or reduced-price meals under the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Program.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


English Language Learner (ELL)
A student is classified as an ELL when: (a) a language other than English is used as the primary language in the home, and (b) the student's English language proficiency is determined to be limited by a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee or as indicated by a test of English proficiency. Most students identified as ELLs receive bilingual or English as a second language instruction.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards19 Texas Administrative Code 89.1225 (amended to be effective May 28, 2012)]


Gifted and Talented
A student identified as gifted and talented is one who performs at or shows the potential for performing at a remarkably high level of accomplishment when compared to others of the same age, experience, or environment, and who: (a) exhibits high performance capability in an intellectual, creative, or artistic area; (b) possesses an unusual capacity for leadership; or (c) excels in a specific academic field.

[Source: Texas Education Code 29.121 (retrieved October 30, 2017)]


Immigrant
A student identified as an immigrant is one who: (a) is aged 3 through 21; (b) was not born in any state in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia; and (c) has not been attending school in the United States for more than three full academic years. U.S. citizenship is not a factor when identifying a student as an immigrant for the purpose of public school data collection.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Mean Score
A mean score is the average score for a given group on a given examination. As an example, the mean AP Psychology score for Texas is calculated as follows:


sum of scores received on all AP Psychology examinations taken by Texas students
number of AP Psychology examinations taken by Texas students

Mean AP scores for students in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.


Migrant
A student identified as a migrant is one who: (a) is aged 3 through 21; (b) is (or whose parent, spouse, or guardian is) a migratory agricultural worker; and (c) in the preceding 36 months, to obtain temporary employment in agriculture or fishing, or to accompany a parent, spouse, or guardian to obtain such employment: (1) has moved from one school district to another; or (2) resides in a school district of more than 15,000 square miles, and migrates a distance of 20 miles or more to a temporary residence to engage in a fishing activity.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Participation Rate
Participation rates for Texas public school students are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. When combined results are presented, data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. For example, the AP/IB participation rate for students in Grades 11 and 12 is calculated as follows:


number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

AP participation rates for students in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board. For information about calculations for distinction designations, see Distinction Designations.


Performance: Examinations With Scores At or Above Criterion (3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination)
Performance results for all examinations taken by Texas public school students are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. Counts of examinations are based on the number of examinations taken in the current school year that received valid scores. Examination counts are higher than examinee counts because some examinees take more than one subject examination. As an example, the percentage of AP/IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12 that received scores at or above criterion is calculated as follows:


number of AP or IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12 that received scores at or above criterion
number of AP or IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12

See also Criterion Score. AP performance results for examinees in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.


Performance: Examinees Scoring At or Above Criterion (3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination)
Performance results for Texas public school examinees are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. Students who have valid AP scores in the range of 1 to 5 or valid IB scores in the range of 1 to 7 for at least one examination taken in the current school year are counted as examinees that year. When combined results are presented, data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. As an example, the percentage of AP/IB examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion is calculated as follows:


number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination

See also Criterion Score. For information about calculations for distinction designations, see Distinction Designations. AP performance results for examinees in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.


Performance: Students Qualifying for College Credit Based on AP or IB Examination Performance
Students in Grades 11 and 12 who have valid AP scores in the range of 3 to 5 or valid IB scores in the range of 4 to 7 for at least one examination taken in the current school year are counted as qualifying for college credit. Data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. The percentage of students qualifying for college credit is calculated as follows:


number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who scored 3 or higher on at least one AP examination or 4 or higher on at least one IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

Race/Ethnicity

College Board
The College Board collects self-reported demographic information, such as race/ethnicity, when examinees take each examination.

For the class of 2015 and earlier classes, College Board reported the following five racial/ethnic categories: African American, American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic (Mexican American, Puerto Rican, or other Hispanic), and White.

Beginning with the class of 2016, College Board collected data on race and ethnicity in compliance with the federal standard. The standard requires that race and ethnicity be collected separately using a specific two-part question, presented in a specific order, and that both parts of the question be answered.

Part 1. Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin?
  • No, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin
  • Yes, Cuban
  • Yes, Mexican
  • Yes, Puerto Rican
  • Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin

Part 2. What is your race?
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  • White

College Board combines the answers to the two-part question to create the following seven mutually exclusive racial/ethnic categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, White, and multiracial. A student identified as Hispanic is included only in the count for Hispanics. A student not identified as Hispanic is included in the count for only one of the following six racial categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Pacific Islander, White, or multiracial. A student identified as having two or more races is included only in the count for multiracial students, not in the count for any single racial category.

International Baccalaureate
IB collects self-reported demographic information, such as race/ethnicity, when examinees take each examination.

Prior to the 2015-16 school year, IB reported the following five racial/ethnic categories: African American, American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and White.

In 2015-16, IB began reporting the following seven racial/ethnic categories:

  1. African American
  2. American Indian
  3. Asian
  4. Hispanic
  5. Pacific Islander
  6. White
  7. Multiracial

Texas Education Agency
School districts submit student demographic information to TEA through the Public Education Information Management System. In 2009-10, TEA began collecting data on race and ethnicity in compliance with a new federal standard. The standard requires that race and ethnicity be collected separately using a specific two-part question, presented in a specific order, and that both parts of the question be answered.

Part 1. Ethnicity: Is the person Hispanic/Latino? Choose only one.
  • Hispanic/Latino
  • Not Hispanic/Latino

Part 2. Race: What is the person's race? Choose one or more, regardless of ethnicity.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
  • White

The racial/ethnic categories are defined as follows. Hispanic includes students of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. American Indian or Alaska Native includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain a tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. Black or African American includes students having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. White includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

For purposes of reporting Texas public school AP and IB data, TEA combines the answers to the two-part question to create seven mutually exclusive racial/ethnic categories. A student identified as Hispanic is included only in the count for Hispanics. A student not identified as Hispanic is included in the count for only one of the following six racial categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Pacific Islander, White, or multiracial. A student identified as having two or more races is included only in the count for multiracial students, not in the count for any single racial category.

[Source: 2009-2010 PEIMS Data Standards; 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Special Education
A student enrolled in a special education program is one who is participating in a special education instructional and related services program or a general education program using special education support services, supplementary aids, or other special arrangements.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]


Title I
A Title I student is one participating in a program authorized under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which is designed to improve the academic achievement of disadvantaged students.

[Source: 2015-2016 PEIMS Data Standards]



Copyright Information
AP is a trademark of the College Board, and International Baccalaureate is a trademark of International Baccalaureate. Other product and company names mentioned may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Contact Information
For questions or comments, please e-mail the Division of Research and Analysis, or contact the division by phone at 512-475-3523.

This page last updated August 10, 2018.