Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) Glossary of Terms, 2011-12


Academic Achievement Distinction Designations
Under the new Texas public school accountability system, introduced in 2013, academic achievement distinction designations (AADDs) recognize school districts and campuses for outstanding achievement in specified academic areas (Texas Education Code, Chapter 39, Subchapter G, 2011). For 2013, a campus that earned an accountability rating of Met Standard was eligible to receive AADDs based on results across a number of indicators, including AP/IB examination participation and performance, in relation to a comparison group of campuses. The indicators were evaluated based on data for the 2011-12 school year. Following are the three campus-level AADD indicators for AP and IB examinations.

Participation in AP/IB examinations in English language arts (ELA) or mathematics. This indicator, which measures the campus-wide percentage of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA or mathematics, is calculated as follows:

number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA or mathematics
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

Performance on AP/IB examinations in ELA. This indicator, which measures the campus-wide percentage of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in ELA, is calculated as follows:

number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in ELA
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in ELA

Performance on AP/IB examinations in mathematics. This indicator, which measures the campus-wide percentage of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in mathematics, is calculated as follows:

number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination in mathematics
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination in mathematics

For more information about the AP/IB indicators, see Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate General Information, 2011-12. For more information about AADDs, see the 2013 Accountability Manual. See also Criterion Score.

Criterion Score
For purposes of awarding academic achievement distinction designations under the Texas public school accountability system, AP/IB examination performance indicators measure the percentages of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above a criterion score on at least one examination. The criterion scores are defined as 3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination. Many colleges and universities award credit or advanced placement to students who meet these scores. See also Academic Achievement Distinction Designations.

Economically Disadvantaged
Under Texas Education Agency (TEA) guidelines, a student is identified as economically disadvantaged if he or she is eligible for free or reduced-price meals under the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Program.

Mean Score
A mean score is the average score for a given group on a given examination. As an example, the mean AP Psychology score for Texas is calculated as follows:

sum of scores received on all AP Psychology examinations taken by Texas students
number of AP Psychology examinations taken by Texas students

Mean AP scores for students in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.

Participation Rate
Participation rates for Texas public school students are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. When combined results are presented, data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. For example, the AP/IB participation rate for students in Grades 11 and 12 is calculated as follows:

number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

Calculation of Texas public school AP and IB participation rates changed beginning with the 2011-12 school year. For 2010-11 and previous years, students served in special education programs were included in the numerators but excluded from the denominators in such calculations. Beginning with 2011-12, special education students were included in both numerators and denominators. Consequently, results for 2011-12 are not comparable to results for previous years. AP participation rates for students in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board. For information about calculations for academic achievement distinction designations, see Academic Achievement Distinction Designations.

Performance: Examinations With Scores At or Above Criterion (3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination)
Performance results for all examinations taken by Texas public school students are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. Counts of examinations are based on the number of examinations taken in the current school year that received valid scores. Examination counts are higher than examinee counts because some examinees take more than one subject examination. As an example, the percentage of AP/IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12 that received scores at or above criterion is calculated as follows:

number of AP or IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12 that received scores at or above criterion
number of AP or IB examinations taken by students in Grades 11 and 12

See also Criterion Score. AP performance results for examinees in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.

Performance: Examinees Scoring At or Above Criterion (3 or higher on an AP examination and 4 or higher on an IB examination)
Performance results for Texas public school examinees are presented for AP and IB examinations separately, as well as for the two combined. Students who have valid AP scores in the range of 1 to 5 or valid IB scores in the range of 1 to 7 for at least one examination taken in the current school year are counted as examinees that year. When combined results are presented, data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. As an example, the percentage of AP/IB examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion is calculated as follows:

number of examinees in Grades 11 and 12 who scored at or above criterion on at least one AP or IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who took at least one AP or IB examination

See also Criterion Score. For information about calculations for academic achievement distinction designations, see Academic Achievement Distinction Designations. AP performance results for examinees in public and nonpublic schools combined in Texas, other states, and the United States are calculated based on data obtained from the College Board.

Performance: Students Qualifying for College Credit Based on AP or IB Examination Performance
Students in Grades 11 and 12 who have valid AP scores in the range of 3 to 5 or valid IB scores in the range of 4 to 7 for at least one examination taken in the current school year are counted as qualifying for college credit. Data for an individual who took both types of examinations are counted only once. The percentage of students qualifying for college credit is calculated as follows:

number of students in Grades 11 and 12 who scored scored 3 or higher on at least one AP examination or 4 or higher on at least one IB examination
number of students in Grades 11 and 12

Calculation of percentages of Texas public school students qualifying for college credit based on AP or IB examination performance changed beginning with the 2011-12 school year. For 2010-11 and previous years, students served in special education programs were included in the numerators but excluded from the denominators in such calculations. Beginning with 2011-12, special education students were included in both numerators and denominators. Consequently, results for 2011-12 are not comparable to results for previous years.

Race/Ethnicity

College Board

The College Board collects self-reported demographic information, such as race/ethnicity, when examinees take each examination. Although the TEA racial/ethnic categories have recently changed, the College Board's categories have remained the same. Following are the racial/ethnic categories reported by the College Board:

1. American Indian
2. Asian
3. Black
4. Hispanic Overall
    a. Mexican American
    b. Puerto Rican
    c. Other Hispanic
5. White
6. Other

International Baccalaureate

TEA does not receive data on race/ethnicity from IB.

Texas Education Agency

School districts submit student demographic information to TEA through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS). Prior to the 2009-10 school year, TEA required that districts submit one of five racial/ethnic categories for each student: American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black or African American (not of Hispanic origin); Hispanic/Latino; or White (not of Hispanic origin).

In 2009-10, TEA began collecting data on race and ethnicity in compliance with a new federal standard. For that year only, as a transitional measure, the data also were collected using the old standard. The new standard requires that race and ethnicity be collected separately using a specific two-part question, presented in a specific order, and that both parts of the question be answered.

Part 1. Ethnicity: Is the person Hispanic/Latino? Choose only one.

  • Hispanic/Latino
  • Not Hispanic/Latino

Part 2. Race: What is the person's race? Choose one or more, regardless of ethnicity.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
  • White

The racial/ethnic categories are defined as follows. Hispanic includes students of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. American Indian or Alaska Native includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain a tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. Black or African American includes students having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. White includes students having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

The new standard resulted in several important changes: (a) the combined racial category Asian/Pacific Islander is now separated into two categories; (b) students once identified exclusively as "Hispanic/Latino" must now report their race; (c) students may report more than one race; and (d) the definition for one of the racial categories—American Indian or Alaska Native—differs from that used in years past. Prior to 2009-10, American Indian or Alaska Native included students having origins in any of the original peoples of North America only.

For purposes of reporting Texas public school AP and IB data, TEA combines the answers to the two-part question to create seven mutually exclusive racial/ethnic categories. A student identified as Hispanic is included only in the count for Hispanics. A student not identified as Hispanic is included in the count for only one of the following six racial categories: African American, American Indian, Asian, Pacific Islander, White, or multiracial. A student identified as having two or more races is included only in the count for multiracial students, not in the count for any single racial category.


Copyright Information
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Contact Information
For questions or comments, please e-mail the Division of Research and Analysis, or contact the division by phone at 512-475-3523.

This page last updated April 29, 2015.